My 18-year-old niece, Matilde Chan Do Rosario, wanted to make art with me so we did a small blackboard she can take back to Macau. It's participatory so she can invite her friends to decipher the sentences and conceptual because I only supplied the idea, the words and the process.
The difference between artists who produce works based on objects already produced and those who operate ex nihilo is one that Karl Marx observes in German Ideology: there is a difference, he says, between natural tools of production (e.g., working the earth) and tools of production created by civilization. In the first case, Marx argues, individuals are subordinate to nature. In the second, they are dealing with a "product of labor," that is, capital, a mixture of accumulated labor and tools of production. These are only held together by exchange, an interhuman transaction embodied by a third term, money. The art of the twentieth century developed according to a similar schema: the industrial revolution made its effects felt, but with some delay. When Marcel Duchamp exhibited a bottle rack in 1914 and used a mass-produced object as a "tool of production," he brought the capitalist process of production (working on the basis of accumulated labor) into the sphere of art, while at the same time indexing the role of the artist to the world of exchange: he suddenly found kinship with the merchant, content to move products from one place to another. Duchamp started from the principle that consumption was also a mode of production, as did Marx, who writes in his introduction to Critique of Political Economy that "consumption is simultaneously also production, just as in nature the production of a plant involves the consumption of elemental forces and chemical materials."
Marx adds that "man produces his own body, e.g., through feeding, one form of consumption." A product only becomes a real product in consumption; as Marx goes on to say, "a dress becomes really a dress only by being worn, a house which is uninhabited is indeed not really a house."(1) Because consumption creates the need for new production, consumption is both its motor and motive. This is the primary virtue of the readymade: establishing an equivalence between choosing and fabricating, consuming and producing . . .
1. Marx, Karl. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy; Translated by S. W. Ryazanikaya, Maurice Does (Ed.); New York; 1970; 195-96.
The cookie bust for myself was a bad idea. I had like three cookies and came to an aburpt sugar crash. I almost fell asleep at the table and had to go walk around. Sigh. To me, bein preggers makes me very sensitive to sugar. So if I have too much I get jittery or have an awful crash. What is this baby doing to me?!? hahaha.
To my surprise when I came back everyone had left the room but Mark and Elana. Mark had waited for me to come back. :) Nice guy!
Anyway, the cookie bust was a success! I enjoyed it and believe they should be mandatory at the end of each semester. In the future, I would recommend making more posters for the event. I made the one for the entrance, but I think having more would have been helpful.
I hope everyone has a great end of the semester! It was wonderful working with everyone and I hope you have a great summer. :)
I'm not sure why I have so much difficulty with this group. My students this summer were great. They were always eager to participate, worked very well together (some too well, but you know teenagers...) and LISTENED to instructors. I feel as though this spring group is always interested in putting up a fight against what advice we have for them. This is a challenge for me. I feel as though I need to re-evaluate my classroom management skills. Maybe they aren't as sharp as I thought they were!
My problem is getting them to work as a team. Each student seems to have his or her own agenda. It's rather sad. There are a handful of team players on my group who are eager to work hard and I feel as though something gets taken away from them.
Maybe Farolyn needs to hook me up with classroom management ideas! Sounds like her experience from Laurel working with her large number of students may have given her some good experience.
Cookies tomorrow! weeeeeeee.....
It is a collaborative art project. The video itself plays for 1 minute and 45 seconds in total. The song that narrates the video I find VERY annoying. Sigh. However, it is kind of cool. If you have a youtube ID just log onto the website and when the video plays click on the video to add a comment. The options after you click on the video allow you to choose a text box, type in text, then choose a color for the text box. Pretty sweet I think. I tried it twice. If you watch it my quotes show up pretty fast under "Mandeesa5".
Enjoy. Try not to shoot yourself in the head from the annoying song.
I AM SO EXCITED TO MAKE COOKIES THIS WEEK !!!! and justify it by being able to say I am working on my final project !
Community Portrait Project Enlivens Campus written by Amherst College student Terry Jarrett. Below are excerpts from the article. Click here for full article.
"Thanks to the Collaborative Art: Practice and Theory of Working With a Community seminar, six 12.5 by 30 feet triptychs with both photographs and oil pastel portraits have been put up across the campus, as well as in the Mead Art Museum. Each triptych has a portrait or photograph of a student, a professor and an Amherst staff member and includes a corresponding quotes."
"A lot of work went into turning these 18 faces into meaningful art. With the help of Artists-in-Residence Wendy Ewald and Brett Cook, the seminar students dedicated two weeks to interviewing their muses and creating the base work for the art. The seminar also met frequently over dinner in Valentine Hall to discuss the social and educational realities that they each faced, and wanted to represent through the art."
"On Sept. 28 the seminar helped coordinate a public celebration on the Valentine Quad. At this celebration all Amherst community members were invited to help color in the triptychs. There were also musical performers and local food in Valentine Dining Hall."
At one point I was asking the students their opinion on the design for our building ( a large mixed use building--a mall, gym, pool, rec center, skate park) and tried to ask them how we could divide the large building up into smaller buildings. As usual, the leader Rezan kept speaking up about how he thought it would be more convenient to keep it as one large building. I was getting a bit frustrated, because he kept talking and gave no one else a chance to speak up. So I said, "okay, so we know how Rezan feels about the building design. What are some other people's thoughts on what to do." I thought that would give some one else time to speak, but NO Rezan started to speak again. I was thinking...what? Are you kidding me? Sigh. It's hard to keep a project collaborative with equal participation all the time.
I ended up having the students sketch out their ideas on how to divide the buildings up in their sketch books privately for 15 minutes. That way they could work independently and not be influenced by others. When the time was up. We went around in a circle to show every one's drawings and then talk about each one for about 2-3 minutes. Afterwards we hung up the drawings on the wall and talked about the strengths of each ideas. we had a good discussion going and next week we are going to try and combine some of those ideas. So lets hope this collaboration works!
Collaborative Film-Making is very similar to social networking. In many cases, a production company will use the internet community to create films that vary in content from suspense to action. Star Wreck Studios, based in Tampere, Finland, hopes to build a permanent community for collaborative movie making. Star Wreck Studios is responsible for the creation of an online community titled Wreck-a-Movie. Wreck-a-Movie is a permanent community site for movie-making collaborators. In early August of 2008, the community was working on two projects: "a science fiction comedy about Nazis on the moon, Iron Sky and a horror film called Sauna." Iron Sky and Sauna were written by professional script writers. The community participates by commenting and discussing the script. The production leader decides what is used in the creation based on the comments and ideas discussed on a forum. The company aspires to "take a community of thousands of online movie-making buffs, and have them collaborate on a feature-length film." Anybody interested in film can join the community and create plot and music proposals as well as comment on scenes.
(Links to information above: Star Wreck Studios, Wreck-a-Movie, Iron Sky, Sauna)
Still interested in collaborative film-making? Check out the sites below:)
Rootclip.com " was created to give filmmakers, writers, actors and anybody who just likes to watch movies the ability to collaborate on a video project. Our goal is to be the catalyst that gets people thinking and being creative with video in such a way that it infects the masses and brings a new life to the art of filmmaking. Get creative and show us what you've got! "
In January of 2009, University of Toronto offered a Collaborative Movie-Making Workshop with filmmaker Oliver Husain, who is a Toronto based artist and filmmaker. The workshop began at 10 am and ended at 6 pm and was only offered to University of Toronto students. Workshop participants were able to produce a collaborative video using Hart House, the school's theatre, as a film set.
Nirvan Mullick, an animator and former student of California Institute of the Arts, produced a micro-collaborative movie titled, The 1 Second Film. The purpose of the film is to raise one million dollars for the Global Fund for Women as well as set "the course for a long term project that utilizes collaborative art and social networking to address social issues". Nirvan Mullick began the project in 2001 with an idea "to bring together all the arts programs at the school to create a community art project through "micro-collaboration, a process of many people contributing in small ways to make something much bigger. " In 2007, over 7,900 people had donated over $200,000. All those who donate money to the 1 Second Film will be listed as producers in the credits. Click here to read the interview with Nirvan Mullick.
Team 1: Mandy, Tina, and Farolyn
Conclusion: This project was tons of fun. I am very glad we stepped outside of our original plan. Interviewing strangers was far more exciting. Everyone enjoyed sharing their definition or idea of art. This experience was different from the hospital in many ways. The hospital is quiet, sterile and usually considered the last place anyone would want to schedule a vacation. The Corcoran neighborhood was live and filled with many unique individuals whose occupation, name, and residence remained hidden. The hospital provided an honest environment where techs and nurses did not mind taking a few seconds out of their work day to answer a question. Overall, this project allowed me to work on my collaborative skills. One idea spoken by one person belongs to the whole team.
Right now we have some wonderful hand written responses to, "what is your definition of art," but on friday we will elaborate on that question a little further by asking our classmates and Mark to respond to the question VISUALLY. Bring your creative hats people! Time to express ourselves!
I am very much looking forward to class on Friday. I wonder if I'll see Jesus walking down the street carrying a cross again?
As you may or may not have known, my team has been conducting interviews in various places to ask people their definition of art. I find their responses to be interesting, but the conversation that stems from that question is amazing. To me, I thought we would just walk up to people to ask them our questions, they would respond for maybe five minutes tops, and then we'd go on our merry way. To my surprise, people are very eager to talk about more than respond to our question.
Our first extensive interview was at the National Gallery. We interviewed a security gaurd and he went on about his response. That was fine because it is a pleasure to have an interview with some one who has a lot to say. However, this interview turned into him telling us about works of art in our immediate area that he found "inspiring" and also artists that he thought made an impact in a certain decade or art movement. I would say our conversation with him went on for about 20-25 minutes. As soon as I thought we were done, we thanked him and went our separate ways only to have him come after us again for a fact that he forgot to mention before. I thought that was pretty funny.
We did about five interviews at the National Gallery. The next set of interviews we conducted were right by the Corcoran. We stopped in front of the Renwick and interviewed two seperate people. The first interview Farolyn has already blogged about--the two women sitting on a bench. I was really surprised by the "fiesty woman's" personality. She was so outgoing and telling us--complete strangers--all about her life and poetry. She even got pretty smart with us and bossed me around at one point! She told me to stand in front of her (I was standing off to the side. My feet were starting to swell and I was getting tired. lol.) We spent another 20 minutes with these women and they made me laugh. I could tell that they had been friends for quite some time cause all they did was laugh with each other. They were very comfortable with each other.
The last interview that took me by surprise was an older gentleman who was sitting on a bench across the street from the Renwick. We asked him our standard question and after he responded he went on to tell us about his day...how he lost his wallet, and more information on his background. He asked us information about us and even wanted to see images of Farolyn's work. I believe we spoke with him for about 20-25 minutes.
Morale of the story, I am surprised at how much people are willing to talk. I watch people standing on the corner of streets trying to get people's signatures/money for various organizations and people just ignore them on the street. I thought our interview process would be just as painful, that we would be struggling to get people to talk to us. Infact, it was hard to get people to STOP talking to us. haha. Who knew that art could be such a great starting point to conversations? Or maybe people will just talk when three lovely girls are listening. :)
(I recently had the opportunity to interview nurses and techs at Doctor's Hospital located in Greenbelt, MD. Below details my quest to help my marvelous group members, Mandy and Tina, on our current project.)
I slowly exited Room 308 A with several sheets of bright white copier paper and a blue felt tip marker. I first approached a bright eyed tech sitting at the nurses station. I introduced myself as a graduate student working on a project for class. I asked the tech to write her definition of art on a sheet of paper. After reading her co-worker's definition, she asked to write again. From this encounter, I gained enough courage to ask the nurse on duty. He scheduled an appointment to meet me later on in the evening when he finished his 'rounds.' Some participants wrote twice while others insisted that I write for them. I must say I was too afraid to ask the doctor on duty. She appeared very stern and unfriendly. I noticed the most common term used to describe art was 'expression.'
Would we willingly collaborate with someone thought to be incapable of actually achieving the ‘mutual’ goal? What if someone has an ulterior motive, or a plan to subvert the entire collaborative agenda. After all, in a political context, a “Collaborator” has very negative connotations, often referencing a person suspected of betrayal and deception. Yet the ‘open forum environment’ which is the keystone to many large collaborative projects, allows almost anyone to join the effort. That said, I think its contradictory to the very nature of “Collaboration” to exclude certain people from any one project. In a way this invites a certain degree of failure or at least presumes and accepts that there will some who merely ride the coat tails of others but still reap the same reward. Of course this all is based on the perspective of the collaborative project as being Goal orientated and not just a community exchange. In any event though I think we assume that if someone willingly chooses to participate in a collaborative environment, we are trusting that their motivations will be the same as ours. This certainly is not always the case. Leaving the question of what degree of discrimination should we have for our fellow collaborators, and if we discriminate, are we actually even collaborating at all? It may also be important to consider this concept, especially in an educational environment, where grades assigned to each individual, are both directly influenced and also affected by one another.
TheBroth.com is a collaborative approach to digital manipulation and creation software like Paint (on most Microsoft Windows software) and Photoshop. Participants are able to create, collaborate, play, chat, make friends, blog, exhibit, rate, and discuss artworks. Members of the Broth can open up their own collaborative live art room, take snapshots and exhibit them in the public gallery, then rate and discuss other artworks in the gallery. Members can also create a personal profile, manage friends and stats, add avatars, earn awards and write in a blog.
"I love Mosaic so much, but I didn't expect seeing it as an online multiplayer game ! TheBroth.com is a massively multiplayer, live internet application that connects people around the globe beyond language and age boundaries. Participate and influence an unpredictable and ever-changing global playground. From live art to a novel social experiment - TheBroth is what you make it!" (quote from a member of theBroth.com)
"The game is so much fun, after entering the mosaic you can already start moving the tiles with other players online and create original artworks. You can register to take snapshot of the mosaic created, there is already many examples in the gallery. If you liked a design you can also buy it on tshirts from cafepress, and maybe in the future you can buy the mosaic itself as a package to assemble at home." (quote from a member of theBroth.com)
Examples of collaborative artworks are listed below:
*Artwork 31810 (95 players)
Artwork 24564 (3 players)
Examples of 1 player artworks are listed below:
For more information click here.
Artists' collectives, in contrast to relational aesthetics, seem focused on the process. They are basically groups of artists working together to create art. The art that is created does not necessarily have to be collaborative even if the process of its conception is. An artists' collective could work on a painting, sculpture, or some other object-based work. They could also choose to work on something more conceptual and/or collaborative. They could choose to make a piece that is judged a success using relational aesthetics.
Collaborative Learning- "the grouping and pairing of learners for the purpose of achieving a learning goal."
Four Collaborative Learning Strategies include:
- Think-Pair-Share- The teacher poses a question demanding an analysis, evaluation, or synthesis of a subject. The students are given approximately one minute to respond to the question. After brainstorming, the students share their responses with a partner. During a follow-up discussion, the students share responses with a larger group of 4 or more students. Students learn by reflection and verbalization.
- Three-Step Interview- Considered a team-building exercise, this strategy can be used to share information about a hypothesis or reactions to a movie or article. First, two students interview each other. Next, the two students join a pair of students to discuss information or insights gathered from the interviews.
- Simple Jigsaw- The teacher divides a project or topic into four parts with all students from each Learning Team volunteering to become "experts" of one part. The "expert" teams work together to master a fourth of the material and to discover how to teach someone else the material. All experts reassemble into their original learning teams and teach their group members. For example, a class of 20 students divided into 5 Learning Teams volunteer to research one of four artist from the Surrealist movement. In one Learning Team (a group of 4 students); one student studies Paul Eluard, another student studies Andre Breton, another student studies Salvador Dali, and another student studies Rene Magritte. These students will join other students in the class who share the same artist (Expert Team). After becoming experts, each student returns to their base learning team to discuss their findings.
- Numbered Heads Together- A Learning Team of 4 students counts off: 1, 2, 3, or 4. The teacher poses a question (sometimes factual) that requires "higher order thinking skills." Students discuss the question making sure each Learning Team member has agreed upon the same answer. The teacher calls a number, from 1 to 4 and the team member designated that number in the beginning of the activity acts as the spokesperson for the whole team. Since no one knows what number the teacher will call, each student is usually invested in finding the right answer. All students are actively involved in the project. With this project, is it best to let students pick and choose their group members?
The benefits of individual, competitive and collaborative efforts are as follows:
- Individual- Acquire specific knowledge in a field and develop simple skills such as spelling.
- Competitive- Develop knowledge that requires a lot of practice (competitive sport such as basketball or swimming), apply and share knowledge or principles.
- Collaborative- Understanding difficult concepts, problem-solving, enhance creativity, value diversity, manage prejudices, understanding different perspectives, develop positive attitude towards learning, and positive self- esteem.
- Promotes student-faculty interaction and familiarity
- Increases student retention
- Enhances student satisfaction with the learning experience
- Promotes positive race relations
- Creates an environment of active, involved, exploratory learning
- Builds more positive heterogeneous relationships
- Creates a stronger social support system
- Classroom anxiety is significantly reduced
- Promotes higher achievement and class attendance
- Increases leadership skills of females (Interesting?!)
- Students are taught how to criticize ideas not people
- Make the group work relevant.
- Create group tasks that require interdependence.
- Create assignments that fit the students' skills and abilities.
- Assign group tasks that allow for a fair division of labor.
- Set up "competitions" among groups. (awarding prizes for best aesthetics or most efficient structure)
- Consider offering group test taking.
- Give students an opportunity to assess peer performance. Ask students to complete a brief evaluation on the effectiveness of the group and each member of the group.
- Decide how to grade members of the group. If each group member will receive the same score then the grade should not be considered significant. Some argue that grading students individually leads to competition within the group and ruins potential benefits of group work.
- Ensure individual student performance by randomly calling on a group member to present their groups progress.
Dealing with the "I hate working in GROUPS!" attitude:
- Let students know at the beginning of the term that you will be implementing group work.
- Encourage students to stick with a group even if it is not working. This will help them become effective team members.
- Explain your rationale for group work.
- Design well-structured meaningful tasks
- Give students clear directions.
- Set strong expectations for how team members are to contribute and interact.
- Invite students to try working in a group.
- Informally check in with groups to see how everything is going.
- Offer assistance as needed.
- Provide time for groups to assess themselves.
Collaborative Learning Video
- KS2 located in London, England explores poverty and education. Teacher offers helpful tips when dealing with aggressive students in a group.
- One of four Collaborative Learning strategies, the Jigsaw technique is successfully implemented at a elementary school. Longer Version (14 minutes). Shorter Version (3 minutes).
- Message for teachers from Murdoch University, Austrailia on facilitating Collaborative Learning.
- A student attending Alternative Community School in Ithaca, New York describes the positive impact of group work.
"Students in art classes today are most often engaged with working on projects alone. Why do so many teachers resist collaboration? Is it solely the organizational challenges? We’re certainly aware of the benefits it offers to both students and ourselves. How can we overcome the fear of planning collaborative work to more realistically reflect contemporary practice?" (It Takes Two....or Two Hundred by Joe Fusaro)
In the 21st century, one must consider the lack of dedicated teachers, funding to hire more teachers, large class sizes and fear. Many educators are afraid to try "collective" techniques in the classroom. Collaboration is the purest form of art. Students are given an opportunity to explore, observe, learn and create work as a team. As I mentioned before, team building skills are essential to the job market today. Art is such a diverse and flexible medium. I am often shocked when I hear stories about art teachers who refuse to introduce 'group' assignments to the class. Group activities seem to relax the jagged divide between the student labeled 'the artist' and the student that constantly shouts "I HATE ART!" Students are able to bring their own level of expertise to the drawing board. One student may have strong hand-building or drawing skills while another student may have a solid knowledge of color theory.
Research is key when implementing collaborative lessons in the classroom. It is beneficial to the educator as well as the student to bounce ideas around and seek guidance from working artists. I am currently studying the graffiti movement. Before the analysis began, I assumed graffiti was a one person show. Recently, I discovered that graffiti artists collaborate with each other when 'tagging' or 'bombing'. Come to think of it a museum collaborates with the artist, art dealer, local organization and visitor. Teachers need to be proactive, and imaginative in their approach to design lessons that incorporate collective work.
"On my way home that evening, I started thinking about the number of artists in Season 4 alone that rely on other people to make their work ready for public viewing and/or consumption. The total number? Fifteen out of the seventeen, at least, rely on others to bring their work full circle into the gallery, museum, or exhibition space.I mention this fact because it came up in discussion more than once over the past week that the days of artists working alone in a studio, tortured with their ideas and feverishly slaving over canvas, are slowly coming to an end. Artists are collaborating more and more, and using teams to realize ideas that would be impossible to complete on their own." (Joe Fusaro "It Takes Two....or Two Hundred" Art 21 website)